Geologic Faults What Is It? Introduction [2] The Hayward Fault is located on the eastern side of San Francisco Bay, California, and forms one branch of the San Andreas Fault system that accommodates the relative motion between the North American and Pacific plates. He works as a research guide for the U.S. Geological Survey. Critical regional gas and water pipelines and electrical transmission lines cross the fault. Even though the region was only sparsely populated at the time, the 1868 quake killed about 30 people and caused great property damage. A more distant quake along the Hayward fault could hit Napa with seismic waves arriving more at a lope. The Hayward fault began forming about 12 million years ago as part of the North … of the Hayward fault from Lienkaemper and others (1991); gray lines, major highways and roads. Notably, the last six quakes (in 1134, 1317, 1475, 1629, 1725, and 1868) occurred at intervals of 95 to 183 years, with an average interval of about 150 years. The dates for earthquakes before 1868 are based on radiocarbon dating. Comparing the ShakeMaps from the 1868 Hayward and the 1989 (magnitude 6.9) Loma Prieta earthquakes shows that a repeat of the 1868 quake would produce much higher levels of shaking and damage in the East Bay than the 1989 quake. At depth, the Hayward fault merges smoothly into the southern part of the Calaveras fault, and the two may rupture together in a larger earthquake than either could produce alone. However, as in 1906, well-constructed buildings on firm ground sustained much less damage. Innovations included a stronger course of brick-laying, incorporating iron binders into brick walls, and interior iron framing. The Hayward Fault runs along the foot of the East Bay hills, something that all residents of the Bay Area, and the East Bay in particular, should know. By Pool Type . Its last major rupture occurred in 1868, during California's frontier days, and was the original "Great San Francisco Earthquake" until 1906. Here’s a zoom-in to the lower right corner, showing the upper part of Arroyo Viejo and the valley of a defunct little stream that I’m calling Arroyo Viejito. Objectives General: Describe the Hayward Fault at the central park using the technology tools Google Earth applying the got knowledge throughout the field methods course to the characterization of the different geological features in the field trips. The symptoms of this tectonic origami are visible across the region in cracked asphalt, off-kilter curbstones, and leaning walls. It still ranks as one of the most destructive earthquakes in California’s history, but this is not the end of the story. Much of what we know about the 1868 quake is documented in a chapter of an important report on the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, which was published in 1908. Fault: Hayward Fault Zone: Type: Strike-slip: Areas affected: San Francisco Bay Area California United States: Total damage: $350,000 / Moderate : Max. That report stated that there’s a 31 percent chance the Hayward Fault will produce a magnitude 6.7 or greater earthquake in the next three decades.The fault runs parallel to and east of the San Andreas Fault. Over 8.7 million Californians and nearly 54 million globally are already planning to participate. But the most significant improvement in shaking resistance was the advent of steel-frame buildings in 1885. Because of the high urban density of the area, it runs through and the gap in time between its most recent rupture, it is considered one of the most hazardous faults in the world. Hayward has had: (M1.5 or greater) 0 earthquakes in the past 24 hours 6 earthquakes in the past 7 days; 17 earthquakes in the past 30 days; 319 earthquakes in the past 365 days 1. Réservez votre propriété de vacances en ligne. In the early morning of October 21, 1868, seismic waves from a powerful earthquake raced through the fog-shrouded San Francisco Bay area. Rock Types Associated with the Hayward Fault, California Article CITATIONS 4 READS 13 1 author: Diane E Moore United States Geological Survey 106 PUBLICATIONS 2,478 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE Available from: Diane E Moore Retrieved on: 19 September 2016. The 150th anniversary of the 1868 quake is in 2018; scientists are convinced that the Hayward Fault has reached the point where a powerful, damaging earthquake can be expected at any time. On April 15, 2006, Drs. An example of a dip-slip or transform fault is the San Andreas fault in California. The Calaveras Fault is a major branch of the San Andreas Fault System that is located in northern California in the San Francisco Bay Area. The Hayward Fault is thought capable of generating a magnitude 7.5 quake. At its northern end, the Hayward fault runs across undeveloped land in a regional shoreline park. This field guide consists of eleven stops at sites that illustrate the geological, geophysical, geographic, and engineering aspects of the Hayward fault in the East Bay. It suggests that either the fault is creeping there, or there has been recent seismic slip.” In fact, according to Watt et al., even the most recent prehistoric earthquakes along the Rodgers Creek fault and Hayward faults, which struck sometime between 1715 and 1776, could have been a single combined event given dating uncertainties. As of 2016, the last eruption was 148 years ago. The Hayward Fault is the single most urbanized earthquake faultin the United States—in 1868 there were only 24,000 residents living in Alameda County; now there are more than 2.4 million people. In order to better understand mechanisms of active faults, we studied relationships between fault behavior and rock units along the Hayward fault using a three-dimensional geologic map. Geodetic Constraints on San Francisco Bay Area Fault Slip Rates and Potential Seismogenic Asperities on the Partially Creeping Hayward Fault  Evans, Eileen Louise; Loveless, John P.; Meade, Brendan J. Hayward is a city in the East Bay area of Alameda County, California.It has a population of 144,186. 9 8 R - 1 3 SSaa n LLeeanddrroo S a n F r a n c i s c o B a y o y 5 D A P 0 0 7. We dedicate this story to the memory of USGS seismologist John (Jack) Boatwright, who was passionate about making the San Francisco Bay Area more earthquake resilient, and who died shortly before the 150th anniversary of the destructive 1868 Hayward Earthquake. A probability map shows a 33-percent chance of that massive quake happening along the Hayward fault, which is considered the most dangerous in … The Hayward Fault, a long and lethal crack in the Earth, slices along the base of the Berkeley Hills and directly through the University of California. All languages; English (9) Selected filters. Reverse, Strike-Slip, Oblique, and Normal Faults, A History of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire, Introduction to Convergent Plate Boundaries, B.A., Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire. The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical, but scientifically plausible story of an earthquake and its aftermath that happens in the Haward Fault. The most dangerous fault in the Bay Area is, as of now, due to fail at any time. 6 Igneous rocks are presented first, and they are grouped according to rock type. He placed expansion joints in the stadium exterior walls mainly at the points where the wall intersected the fault. Red lines are major earthquake faults; black line shows the portion of the Hayward Fault that ruptured in 1868; diamonds show locations of damage reports (1868) and seismic recordings (1989). The map shows that shaking was strongest in Hayward, Fremont, and San Leandro, and weaker but damaging in Oakland, San Francisco, and San Jose. The Hayward Fault pretty much runs through the center of downtown Fremont and many of its suburban neighborhoods where this walk is located. The west side moves north with each major earthquake on it. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies show that similar Hayward Fault quakes have repeatedly jolted the region in the past and that the fault may be ready to produce another magnitude 6.8 to 7.0 earthquake. (I’ll return to that.) William L. Ellsworth. Date: Friday, June 26 2020. At Mission San Jose, in southern Fremont, the adobe church built in 1809 and other mission buildings were heavily damaged. Historical land-survey data suggest that the fault broke as far north as Berkeley, with an average horizontal offset of about 6 feet (2 meters). Oakland, a town of about 12,000 and mainly wood-frame buildings, was much less heavily damaged than San Leandro and Hayward. Although the region was sparsely populated, the quake on the Hayward Fault was one of the most destructive in California’s history. Prenez le volant d’une voiture de type Camionette lorsque vous arrivez à Hayward Fault Exposed. As the complex evolved, the Hayward fault at times may have been the principal active trace, as the San Andreas fault is today—and might be again.Transform plate boundaries are an important element of plate tectonics, the theoretical framework that explains the motions and behavior of Earth's outermost shell. These data are a geospatial representation of liquefaction potential for the HayWired earthquake scenario, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake occurring on the Hayward Fault on April 18, 2018, with an epicenter in the city of Oakland, CA. The 1868 Hayward Fault earthquake is a reminder of the tremendous power that lurks beneath the Earth’s surface in the San Francisco Bay region. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), Mapping, Remote Sensing, and Geospatial Data. mini wrote a review Jan 2020. To estimate the shaking intensity, it is necessary to consider the construction of the damaged buildings, that is, whether they were adobe, brick, or wood. Damage to infrastructure, such as transportation and utilities, and other long-term economic effects could substantially increase the losses. Numerous witnesses reported seeing the ground move in waves. This is a type of shearing force where the right block moves toward you and the left block moves away. The Seismic Hazard Mapping Program addresses the secondary earthquake hazards of liquefaction (the inability of water-saturated, heavily shaken soil to support structures) and landslides. Although it has been known for some time that the Calaveras and Hayward faults merge in the South Bay region, recent geological studies suggest that the Calaveras and Hayward faults may be even more closely connected horizontally deep beneath the surface, angling toward each other with depth until they become a single fault. 3) reverse fault As demonstrated by the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina, Sandy, and Maria, recovery from catastrophic events can take years. Until it was eclipsed by the great 1906 earthquake, the 1868 earthquake was known as the “great San Francisco quake.” The area of strongest shaking covered about 1,000 square miles. (Public domain.). The Hayward fault zone is bounded on the east by a series of faults that demarcate the beginning of one or more structural blocks containing rocks and structures unrelated to the Hayward fault zone. Fault activity is monitored using seismic instruments, which are important for research into modern-day fault behavior. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies show that similar Hayward Fault quakes have repeatedly jolted the region in the past and that... Office of Communications and Publishing12201 Sunrise Valley DriveReston, VA 20192United StatesPhone: 703-648-4460. to the Hayward Fault, California by Haijiang Zhang and Clifford H. Thurber Abstract We have developed a double-difference (DD) seismic tomography method that makes use of both absolute and relative arrival times. The Hayward fault is a transform or strike-slip fault that moves sideways, rather than the more common faults that move up on one side and down on the other. Mar-May; Jun-Aug; Sep-Nov; Dec-Feb; Language. Strong shaking during the 1868 Hayward Fault earthquake caused the second story of the Alameda County Courthouse in San Leandro to collapse (photo courtesy of the Bancroft Library, University of California). The purple line is the little-known Miller Creek fault. This digital map database, compiled from previously open- filed U.S. Geological Survey reports (Graymer and others, 1994, Graymer, Jones, and Brabb, 1994) and unpublished data, represents the general distribution of rocks and faults in the Hayward fault zone. Note that the interval between successive quakes has varied from 95 to 183 years, averaging 150 years, and it is now more than 150 years since the 1868 earthquake. Hayward is the sixth largest city in the San Francisco Bay Area and the third largest in Alameda County, It is on the Bay's eastern shore, next to Union City.The San Mateo-Hayward Bridge starts there. : U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2018–3052, 4 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20183052. All languages; English (9) Selected filters. October 21, 2008, marks the 140th Anniversary of the 1868 approximate Magnitude 7 earthquake. The Hayward Fault splinters from the Calaveras Fault, an offshoot of the San Andreas Fault, near Hollister. Filter. (Public domain.). The Hayward Fault. The 1868 earthquake on the Hayward Fault capped a decade-long sequence of seven increasingly strong quakes in the Bay Area. Is the Hayward Fault the Nation’s Most Dangerous Fault? The mainshock begins beneath the City of Oakland (star) and causes the Hayward Fault to rupture along about 52 miles of its length (thick black line). The red stripe, which I added, represents the Hayward fault. After the 1868 quake, and a previous one in 1865, damaged San Francisco, engineers worked to strengthen buildings throughout the Bay Area. The first is its location in the urban heart of the Bay Area. The Hayward Fault Zone is a geologic fault zone capable of generating destructive earthquakes.This fault is about 74 mi (119 km) long, situated mainly along the western base of the hills on the east side of San Francisco Bay.It runs through densely populated areas, including Richmond, El Cerrito, Berkeley, Oakland, San Leandro, Castro Valley, Hayward, Union City, Fremont, and San Jose. Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country, USGS General Information Products 15, 41, and 42. USGS scientists describe the Hayward fault as a tectonic time bomb, due anytime for another magnitude 6.8 to 7.0 earthquake. Strike-slip faults have walls that move sideways, not up or down. USGS and other scientists have used the 1908 report, as well as historical newspaper accounts, photographs, pioneer diaries, and letters, to understand the shaking effects and gauge the size of the 1868 earthquake. Traces of the Hayward Fault, California The purpose of this map is to show the location of and evidence for recent movement on active fault traces within the Hayward Fault Zone, California. The next time it produces a large quake, the damage and destruction could be staggering - estimated economic losses from an 1868-strength earthquake (6.8 magnitude) could exceed 120 billion dollars. Arrows show relative movement on the fault. It splays to the east and trends between N. 20° and 35°W along some 119 km. The 150th anniversary of the 1868 earthquake, and all historical earthquake anniversaries, are opportunities to remind people that we live in earthquake country and we should all be prepared for the next big quake. The crustal structure across the northern Hayward Fault zone, in the vicinity of Berkeley, is rather complex with a lateral bedrock velocity contrast of approximately 30 across the fault zone with the SW side fast and also with an attenuation contrast across the fault zone with the NE side having higher attenuation as evidenced by the variability in the observed seismic ground motions shown in Figure 16.2. The inset photo shows the courthouse before the quake. Technically speaking, the Hayward is a right-lateral strike-slip fault. Motion over millions of years has brought different sets of rocks next to each other on the fault trace. Home Science Math History Literature Technology Health Law Business All Topics Random. Strike-Slip Faults. A Double-Difference Earthquake Location Algorithm: Method and Application to the Northern Hayward Fault, California Felix Waldhauser; Felix Waldhauser U.S. Geological Survey 345 Middlefield Rd., MS977 Menlo Park, California, 94025 felix@andreas.wr.usgs.gov ellsworth@usgs.gov . The Hayward Fault, a long and lethal crack in the Earth, slices along the base of the Berkeley Hills and directly through the University of California. North of Hayward, the city of Oakland is the largest on the Hayward fault. Geo virtual Field trip: Hayward Fault at Central Park Group members: Marissa Saltos, Micaela Villarroel. At San Leandro, with a population of about 400, the second floor of the Alameda County Courthouse collapsed, and many other buildings were destroyed. Because the approximate location of the Hayward Fault, its potential for significant earthquakes were known at the time of construction, Howard adapted the design of the stadium accordingly. Families; Couples; Solo; Business; Friends; Time of year. The Hayward Fault is thought capable of generating a magnitude 7.5 quake. The Hayward fault is the red line, the Chabot fault is the blue line, and I’ve added the lidar swath along the fault between the light-blue lines. The Hayward fault is a transform or strike-slip fault that moves sideways, rather than the more common faults that move up on one side and down on the other. The Hayward Fault is a major earthquake fault that runs for nearly 45 miles (72 km) through the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay region. Log in Ask Question. Today, Hayward, as it is now spelled, has a new city hall building that is built to ride on a lubricated foundation during a major quake like a kid on a skateboard. Brocher, T.M., Boatwright, J., Lienkaemper, J.J., Prentice, C.S., Schwartz, D.P., and Bundock, H.P., 2018, The Hayward Fault—Is it due for a repeat of the powerful 1868 earthquake? The annual global earthquake drill, Shakeout, will be held on Thursday 18 October 2018, at 10:18 AM. In 1868, the little settlement of Haywards was nearest to the epicenter of the earthquake. Fremont, California 94,093 contributions 3,693 helpful votes. The last large event was the 1984 Morgan Hill event and the last moderate earthquake was the 2007 Alum Rock event. However, many scientists believe that the Hayward Fault is connected to the Calaveras Fault to the south, the Rodgers Creek Fault to the north and to the Maacama Fault still farther north. The occasion on Friday was a photo op for the press. In Ground Above Ground Commercial By Category . "(It's) the single most dangerous fault … The Hayward fault began forming about 12 million years ago as part of the North American/Pacific plate boundary, along with the rest of the San Andreas fault complex. (Public domain. On October 21, 1868, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay region. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Tectonic Landforms: Escarpments, Ridges, Valleys, Basins, Offsets. Scientists are keeping a nervous eye on the Hayward fault, which runs along the most urbanized edge of San Francisco’s East Bay.The Hayward fault activity is capable of generating destructive earthquakes. The eastern bounding faults are, from the south, the Calaveras, Stonybrook, Palomares, Miller … In San Francisco, the largest city on the west coast with a population of 150,000, five people were killed and property losses were significant. They retrofit masonry buildings with iron tie-rods and anchors between floors and walls, and they designed and implemented systems to make new buildings more resistant to shaking. ShakeMap showing the inferred intensity of ground shaking in the 1868 earthquake (measured as MMI, or Modified Mercalli Intensity), compared to a ShakeMap for the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. (denoted “Type A” faults by the USGS). The section of the Hayward Fault that produced the 1868 Hayward earthquake is highlighted in yellow. USGS scientists have found evidence for 12 quakes on the southern Hayward Fault during the past 1,900 years. USGS earthquake science tells us that it’s now urgent to prepare for the next magnitude 7 quake on the Hayward Fault. Shaking from the 1868 quake was the strongest that the new towns and growing cities of the Bay Area had ever experienced. Pool Pumps Pool Heaters Pool Cleaners Pool Sanitization Pool Automation ... Hayward websites have been developed in compliance with standards for Internet Explorer 10 or later. We’ve updated this video: https://youtu.be/GhFMtCmHc9cOctober 21st will mark the 141st Anniversary of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake. Vous avez dit Hayward Fault Exposed, Fremont? We will see examples at points 5.2 and 5.4 on this tour. What type of fault is the Hayward Fault? … Nearly all transform faults are in the deep sea, but the major ones on land are noteworthy and dangerous, such as the Haiti Earthquake of 2010. A major seaport and rail terminal as well as a county seat, Oakland is aware of its vulnerability and is slowly getting better prepared for the inevitable large earthquake on the Hayward fault. This is a good place to see the fault in its natural setting, where a big quake will do little more than knock you on your butt. Study of excavations across the Hayward Fault has provided a record of strong earthquakes, all estimated at magnitude of 6.3 or greater, going back hundreds of years—some historical events are shown for reference. Recent studies show that such powerful Hayward Fault quakes have repeatedly jolted the region in the past. This means that it shows its everyday action in the form of aseismic creep, the slow, steady sliding of land along the fault’s margin. Custom House and several other structures built on land reclaimed from the former Yerba Buena Cove (today’s Financial District) sustained severe damage. Réservez maintenant, payez plus tard avec Expedia. The hazard of building on landfill in San Francisco Bay (called “made land” at the time) and the admonition to “build no more cornices” were largely forgotten by the time of the 1906 quake. It’s a perfect time to practice Drop, Cover, and Hold On, to check your emergency kit, and to test your earthquake response plans. Since then, nearly three million people have moved next to the Hayward fault with little regard for its earthquake potential. Activity on the different segments of the fault includes moderate and large earthquakes as well as aseismic creep. Ominously, it appears that major earthquakes have appeared with an average interval of 138 years between them over the last millennium. Mar-May; Jun-Aug; Sep-Nov; Dec-Feb; Language. Traveller type. Fault creep The fault passes through the University of California Berkeley football stadium (left), and past earthquake movements have significantly offset Hamilton Gulch (center). Earth scientists have long branded the Hayward Fault the Bay Area's deadliest, where a truly "Big One" is inevitable at some unforeseen time. Earth Sciences. The Hayward fault is part of the wide plate boundary between the two largest lithospheric plates: the Pacific plate on the west and the North American plate on the east. Publication type: Report: Publication Subtype: USGS Numbered Series: Title: The Hayward Fault, we can't ignore it; a video tape; Part 1, Faults, earthquake history and Hayward Fault tour, and Part 2, Fault creep, earthquake hazards and the future This is an easy walk and a good opportunity to educate yourself and your children. Many brick walls, cornices, and other heavy architectural elements of buildings in the city fell, and the U.S. The Hayward Fault has ruptured about every 140 years for its previous five large earthquakes. Preparing now can significantly reduce loss of life and property from that coming quake. (Public domain.). Google Scholar. 1) strike-slip fault. Bon choix! By Thomas M. Brocher, Jack Boatwright, James J. Lienkaemper, Carol S. Prentice, David P. Schwartz, and Howard Bundock. Fremont, California 94,085 contributions 3,693 helpful votes. English. What are the Different Kinds? Towns in the East Bay suffered the most severe damage. NCGS Commemorates the 1906 Great Earthquake by Walking…the Hayward Fault! Although the region was then sparsely populated, this quake on the Hayward Fault was one of the most destructive in California?s history. Search for other works by this author on: GSW. In addition to creating scenarios, regular practice drills by whole communities are essential. English. All three faults are right-lateral strike-slip faults. This digital map database, compiled from previously open- filed U.S. Geological Survey reports (Graymer and others, 1994, Graymer, Jones, and Brabb, 1994) and unpublished data, represents the general distribution of rocks and faults in the Hayward fault zone. ), Impact of the 1868 Hayward Quake on Building Practice. and if you can, can u guys also tell me the most recent major earthquake along this fault, and also problems we would encounter if we have another major earthquake along this fault… In 1996, an 18-millimeter creep event, the largest ever observed on the Hayward fault, occurred between surveys 63 days apart. Andrew Alden is a geologist based in Oakland, California. mini wrote a review Jan 2020. Fascinating to see Hayward Fault Exposed, Fremont, CA. Strong shaking lasted more than 40 seconds, devastating several East Bay towns. Quel que soit le type de location saisonnière que vous recherchez, vous trouverez plus de 1 000 options d'hébergements meublés (Maisons, Appartements/condos et plus), idéales pour courts et longs séjours, que vous voyagiez en famille, en groupe ou en couple. Joyce Blueford and Mitch Craig lead NCGS members, family, and the general public on a field trip to examine evidence of the Hayward Fault in the East Bay. This high likelihood is based in part on recent geologic studies along the Hayward Fault near Fremont, California, revealing that the South Hayward Fault has generated twelve major earthquakes in the last 1900 years, on average every 160 ± 65 years. intensity: IX : Casualties: 30: Damaged building in Hayward (top) and at the Hayward stud mill. This event marked the end of a period of severely reduced creep on the southern part of the fault that began after the 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake. 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