Ans. Define the structure of HR department. About Us: As an awarding organisation for business development staff, ICM provides a wide range of professional qualifications in business, management … To improve the performance of manager at all levels of activities. He utilise that acquire knowledge and skill, in different field. Here we have given some live HRM case studies which are short, … Is performance appraisal advantageous? It is difficult to administer because continuous interaction between superior and the subordinate is required. Even for old worker training is necessary to refresh them. Therefore, strategic human resource management deals with all those activities affecting the behaviour of individuals in their efforts to formulate and implement the strategic needs of the business. For example, members of the Board of Directors have to rely heavily on their conceptual abilities in making decisions. Download. iii. stream Management is primarily dealing with human beings and its problem. ii. In the initial stages, the authorities not only refused to recognize such bodies but vigorously prohibited the services from joining them. It also provides useful information for forecasting manpower requirements in term of knowledge and skills. There are mainly three popular approaches to managing change: (1) Lewin’s classic Three-step model of the change process. 4. /Type /ExtGState The basic strategic HRM deals with the culture, style and structure of the organisation and the quality, commitment and motivation of employees. Human resource management is actively involved in strategy implementation in the form of downsizing and restructuring, throughout placing employees, instituting performance based pay plans, reducing health care costs, and retraining employees. For implementing and evaluating what worked, what did not and what was learnt in the process. To attract competent persons and retain them in the organization. It is true that if the employees do not organise themselves, it would be difficult for them to get better working condition and improve their life. Ans. 5. viii. Societal Objectives – To be ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society while minimizing the negative impact of such demands upon the organization. 250+ Hr Management Interview Questions and Answers, Question1: What is Human Resource Management? It Channelises the procedures necessary to achieve quality performance. The department also prepares programmes which basically concerning recruitment, selection, training, etc. Discipline in the service is very essential for an efficient personnel system. Training instructs the workers toward better job adjustment and reduces the rate of labour turnover and absenteeism. It is a continuous function because needs of an organisation keep on changing and some people leave the organisation from time to time. 6. The term human resource is quite popular in India with the institution of ‘Ministry of Human Resource Development’ in the Union Cabinet. 6. HRM Question and Answers:- Q.20. The management of men is a challenging task because of the dynamic nature of the people. HRM is in a unique position to provide competitive intelligence that can be useful in the strategic planning process. They need to be able to ANALYSE the requirements for a particular job (rather like this!) 1. Q.35. So, don’t hesitate to ask any Oracle related questions, our dedicated team will answer all your queries Provision for replacement of personnel can be made through Human Resource Planning. Ans. At times, individuals with certain temperamental qualities may also be specified in job specifications. Lack of efforts to make better utilisation of the trainees. It also helps in controlling human resource costs through effective utilisation. It helps in minimizing absenteeism and in improving productivity. The structure of one industrial organization differs from that of another organization and it depends upon: 2. Ans. Disclaimer 8. 2. iii. Job analysis provides valuable information required to identify training needs to design training programs and to evaluate training effectiveness. Any agreement, which is likely to destroy cordial industrial relations, should be avoided. 4. 3. Ans. Ans. /TK true The overall purpose of selection interviews in an organization are as follows: HRM Question and Answers:- Q.22. So, it is helpful to give more training to employee. Standar­disation, simplification and specialisation help to make job-holders experts leading to higher productivity, and lower costs. Stress also differ from frustration, which is blocked goal attainment. It is the function of every manager and not simply of Human Resource Department. Today educated and creative employee demanded for well-designed jobs, therefore, job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment are introduced in the organisation, to retain the employee or to attract them towards the organisation. 5. Ans. It is an internal phenomenon and a mental attitude. He submits his report within 14 days from the date of commencement of conciliation proceedings. Briefly describe the importance of HRM. Management is getting things done through and with people, responsibility of managing people rests with the line manager. There is trend to use temporary and part time workers, employees on contract basis and as consultants. In a narrow legalistic sense, industrial relation is a subject of study and aspect of management which includes the relationship between, employers and employees. Get Essay C. Is the process of identifying top talent, both within functions and corporate-wide, to develop pools of talent for critical positions, and to Identify development plans for key leaders. Complexity of the problems being faced. 3. Most organisations in the public sector are generating more than the adequate quantity of data. 3. (ii) Monetary Compensation- Monetary compensation will be provided to the employees for their efficient performance. Managerial Competence – Person having this drive seek managerial positions that provide opportunities for higher responsibility, decision making, control and influence over others. Managers need to be developed to handle the problems of complex organisations in the face of increasing competition. Keep checking as we keep uploading these Diploma Past papers . Management needs education and training to understand and adjust to changes in socio­economic forces. For example, the IT major, Infosys has developed unique human resource capabilities that provide the firm with a competitive advantage. It is a continuous or life long process, throughout the life, individual learn something. Particularly in knowledge-based industries such as software and information services, success increasingly depends on “people-embodied know- how”. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Facilitate giving general information to the applicant such as company policies, job, products manufactured etc. HRM is a staff function and it helps all executives in making the organisation a good place to work in. In recent years there has been relative agreement among HRM. To reduce employee dissatisfaction and turnover. 5. Strategic management deals with both aids and means. Thus, it helps to increase interest in work and efficiency. 4. HRM function considers salary, economic rewards, job simplification and job specialization as, Q.45. Training enables the management to face the pressure of changing environments. The idea of employees association first developed in private industry in the nineteenth century Socialism At that time workers were feel that employers are getting more profit by using their collective strength and employees could expect little, from their employers in the matter of wages and working conditions. Human Resource Management embraces a very wide field of activities. If the dispute was not settled by a conciliation officer, government may constitute a Board of Conciliation. Ans. These HR Management GK Quiz or General Awareness quiz objective questions answers are very helpful for competitive exams BBA, MBA, PGDBM etc. Stress is generally believed to have a deleterious effect on health and performance. It is also concerned with policy-decision affecting the entire organisation. 7. It assists for promotion and nomination to higher posts. It includes individual relation and joint consultation between employers and workers of the place of work. (vi) Individual Responsibility- Each worker is responsible for their own task. 8. The domestic enquiry require the following procedure for providing proper justice to the employee or to the management: 1. To develop a consistent wage policy. Job enlargement involves adding more tasks to a job. Ans. (vi) Any redeployment process must fit easily within the overall restructuring programme and be easy to understand and administer within a reasonable time. Ans. 2. Ans. There should be no recourse to go-slow tactics; 4. Reskilling employees should be on ongoing process. Adequate time must be allowed to let it take roots. It is through the combined and concerted efforts of people that monetary and material resources are harnessed to achieve organizational goals. Some definitions interpret it as the degree to which employees are able to meet their personal needs through their experience in the organization. For prioritizing the areas for improvement. This is a quiz the first one in a series of tests made to help me prepare for my human resource management exam. Human resource department is established as a staff department to advise all other departments and the top management on human resource matters, within the human resource department the relations are of line type. The discipline of Human Resource Development (HRD) was developed because the Human Resource Management has failed to meet the new challenges of the 20 century. Performance Appraisal through MBO. 6. Collective bargaining is the process, where terms and conditions of employment are determined by mutual agreement between the employer and the employees. Risk of professional and knowledgeable workers. Employee empowerment – Knowledge workers need to be provided with greater autonomy though information sharing and provision of control over factors that affect performance. According to Flippo, “Human resource management is the planning, organising, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and reproduction of human resource to the end that individual, organisational and society’ objectives are accomplished.”, According to Dessler, “Human resource management is the process of acquiring, training, appraising and compensating employees and attending to their labour relations, health, and safety and fairness concerns.”, Milkovich and Boudreau have defined HRM as follows, “Human resource management is a species of integrated decisions that form the employment relationships; their quality contributes to the ability of the organisations and the employees to achieve their objectives.”. Greater is the number of pieces produced by a worker, higher is his remuneration, thus, a workman is paid in direct proportion to his output. Organizational Viability and Transformation Process. In the words of George R. Terry, “Incentive means that which incites or has a tendency to incite action.”. Therefore, human resource audit is most essential to check the organisational performance in the management in the human resources. Reskilling employees should be never-ending process. redeployment). Trained workers enable the enterprise to face competition from rival organization. Growth of powerful nationwide trade union. This is the General Knowledge Questions & Answers section on & Human Resource Management& with explanation for various interview, competitive examination and entrance test. Try this free PHR practice test to see what's on a certification exam for human resource professionals. i. The key elements of a Performance Management System include the following: i. In simple words, HRD is an organized learning experience aimed at matching the organizational need for human resource with the individual need for career growth and development. i. Management development programmes are required to train and develop professional managers. Difference between job description and job specification. Profit-sharing plan is an important supplement to wages and a good financial incentive, the purpose of profit-sharing is to distribute additional profit among employees in the form of bonus or incentives, which may be paid in cash or transferred to their account. Wages may be based on number of units produced (i.e. 4. Ans. Q.30. Conciliation method saves a lot of time and expenditure of the disputed parties. To provide a framework for periodic reviews and revision of wage rates. So the candidates who are going to appear in any recruitment exam must have practice with this Human Resource Management MCQ (multiple choice questions). If stress is the condiment strain is the salt and if there is an imbalance in condiment-salt relationship, the result is impala-table. Ethical management – Ethical issues pose fundamental questions about fairness, justice, truthfulness and social responsibility. On the basis of such information, management can develop measures to ensure the health and safety of employees. Trained workers need lesser supervision. 1. 2. (7) Employers and workers should agree on the objectives of industry. Helps in assuming responsibility and working in disciplinary manner. The outcomes of training programmes are not mentioned. It is necessary in a diversified and decentralised organisation. Conciliation is the process by which representatives of workers and employers are brought together before a third party. Download PDF. (1) Policy Formulation- Human resource department formulates new human resource policies and revises the existing policies. It is a continuous process or never ending process. No two persons are similar in mental abilities, traditions, sentiments, and behaviour; they differ widely also as groups, and are subject to many and varied influences. "Human Resource Management MCQ" with answers helps with fundamental concepts for self-assessment with theoretical, analytical, and … They would recognise and respect the rights and obligations of each other. Personnel Research and Information systems. 5. These refer to the ability to work effectively with others on a person-to-person basis, and to build up cooperative group relations to accomplish the organizational goals. To recognise and satisfy individual needs and group goals by offering appropriate monetary and non-monetary incentives. Dear All, Please find attach file of questions those helpful for HRM exams prepration. ii. 1. iii. Download Full PDF … (iv) Analyse and solve- Information should be analysed, alternative standard to the problem should be developed and best solution selected. The major attention of HRD is on improving the human process. 4. The importance of redeployment has been discussed in the following: (i) It offers employees unique opportunities such as multiple career pathways and opportunities for development. Career anchors denote the basic drives that create the urge to take up a certain type of a career. Industrial relations means the relationship between employer and employees in industrial organisation. (x) Human Resource Planning helps in planning for physical facilities like canteen, staff quarters, dispensary and school for the staff and their children. To sustain good performance of manager to prepare him for higher jobs in future. 6. Advisory Role – HRM advises management on the solutions to any problems affecting people, personnel policies and procedures. "Human Resource Management (HRMS) MCQ" with answers helps with fundamental concepts for self-assessment with theoretical, analytical, and … Organizational structure affects organizational action in two big ways. Outline and discuss the main obstacles hindering or preventing HR departments from delivering strategic HRM Ans. /Length 6254 5. Multiple Choice Single Answer Question human resources. Huge Collection of Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Business Management shared by visitors and users like you. Management is further defined as, “… that field of human behaviour in which managers plan, organise staff, direct and control human, physical and financial resources in an organised effort, to achieve desired individual and group objectives with optimum efficiency and effectiveness.”. The true purpose of a performance appraisal system is primarily to assess the capabilities of a person in terms of his contribution towards the achievement of organisational goals. Now several public and private sector organizations have HRD department and HRM managers. Other incidental purposes of discipline are developing a sense of equanimity and spirit of tolerance, adjustment among superior and subordinates, acceptance to the rules, regulation and procedure of the system on the part of workers, securing responsible behaviour on the part of employees, improving overall effectiveness of the organisation, by emphasizing organisational culture. 3. Discipline is very essential in civil service. This paper. 1. Generally there are two methods of wage payment: Under this system, wages are paid on the basis of time spent on the job irrespective of the amount of work done. Human Resource Management Multiple Choice Questions and Answers (MCQs): Quizzes & Practice Tests with Answer Key (Human Resource Management Quick Study Guide & Course Review Book 1) provides mock tests contains course review tests for competitive exams to solve 763 MCQs. Training and development can be contrasted as follows: iii. Wages may be based on hourly, daily, weekly or even monthly basis. 2. Only one union should be recognised in each industrial unit to represent the workers. But in strategic HRM, the responsibility for managing human resources is placed mostly on line managers who basically manage people at work. Second, it determines which individuals get to participate in which decision-making processes, and thus to what extent their views shape the organization’s actions. The chairman is an independent person and its members are appointed by the dispute parties itself in equal number. 4. Selection refers to the process by which qualified applicants are selected by means of various tests in pre-determined numbers, out of large number of applicants. Training is learning job specific KSAs i.e., acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes that one requires to do a particular job. This will minimize grievances and improve confidence in the management. Differentiate between training and development. The goal of training is fairly quick improvement in workers’ performance, whereas the goal of development is the overall enrichment of the organisation’s human resources. Ans. 5. To have a stable workforce by reducing absenteeism and employee turnover. 6. This multiple choice question on HRP an integral part of Human Resource Management is very helpful for post-graduate and graduate students like MBA, BBA, B.COM and other exams like NET, SET etc. It is a broader concept than Human Resource Management. Job description helps the candidate to understand the requirements of the job which are to be fulfilled by him and it also helps him in making self-appraisal by comparing his actual performance with job description. People are driven by an overwhelming desire to do something new that is totally of their own making. Compulsory Retirement Pension- Such pension is granted to a government servant, when he is compulsorily retired as a penalty. 2. 7. Get Your Custom Essay on Human Resource Management: Exam Questions Just from $13,9/Page. It is essentially adding more tasks to a single job. This is actually done on an annual basis. Main Characteristics of Staffing are: 1. The scientific management approach has provided the following principles for job design: (i) Specialisation- Workers should be selected to perform specific tasks so as to ensure narrow specialisation. (iii) Objective – Its main objective is to determine remunerations for different jobs. Ans. Radhika-gauns. 2. Briefly explain the nature of career planning? For example, McDonalds has developed core competencies in management efficiency and training. 4. End gives a vision of how things are likely to shape up, whereas means shows the path of the vision’s realisation in practice. �Z�MO@Z�R_v�r��$b�^��c��B�N;��HN} ����]~�U2�d^��u�0��}܁���ܻ,�c�{Y5�������9�s�;)V��_fY�gGs��N�e�_#�����Pq����\W_Q��!�O�q? Discovering or identifying training needs. Question5: What are the responsibilities of HR Generalist? (ii) It must serve as a guideline for framing and implementing training programme. Manpower management is a most crucial job because “managing people is the heart and essence of being a manager.” It is concerned with any activity relating to human elements or relations in organisation. News & Announcements. Suitable Placement – Performance appraisal enables a company to give suitable placement to an employee based on their talents and skills. 2. In 1973, the International Labour Office Workers Manual defines collective bargaining as “negotiation about working conditions and terms of employment between an employer, a group of employers or one or more employers’ organisations. To improve employee morale and motivation by matching their skills to job requirements. Problem of Participation- Traditional hierarchical structures and authoritative attitudes do not allow active participation of subordinates in goal- setting. Human Resource Development is the continuous process of improving the capabilities required to achieve organizational and individual goals. Relations of all these associated in industry may be called industrial relation. Ans. 9. iv. Not only the fresher, but also the employee in service requires training for promotion or to change any new job. 5. Add New Question. No unilateral action should be taken in connection with any industrial matter; 3. SECTION A: Compulsory question. Learning is a natural or never ending process. 4. Aim of job design is to integrate the needs of the individual and the requirement of the organisation. (4) Monitoring and Control- HRM department conducts HR audit and helps other departments in proper implementation of human resource policies and programmes. Human resource manager is the head of the human resource department. They should consider organisation a joint endeavour in which workers have an equal say. Workers are better educated and more aware. It deals the strength and weaknesses, achievements and failures of the employee. These are most important for operating managers. Tourism Officer. It is a slow and steady process. At that time attitude of the government towards these unions was not good but time changes everything. This will improve organization productivity. To secure the integration of all the individuals and groups with the organisation by reconciling individual. v. To determine equitable wage differentials between different jobs in the organisation. For example, when an organisation is introducing new equipment, they may give training to their workers regarding how to use that equipment on their job. An enormous shift from manufacturing jobs to service jobs is taking place in America and Western Europe. Lack of coordination among the training staff and other staff. The term “Annual Confidential Report” or Confidential Character Role is used to name performance appraisal chart in government generally, confidential report is a report which is prepared by the employee’s superior. (vi) Follow up- Implementation and follow-up of the solution must be followed up at every stage in order to ensure effective and speedy implementation. Recognize the efforts and contributions of current staff. According to M.P. Report a Violation 11. “The Management of Man” is a very important and challenging job; important because it is a job, not of managing ‘men,’ but of administering a social system. Performance Appraisal provides valuable information and reliable data for such decisions. Different qualities to be rated may not be given proper weightage in certain cases. Discipline is vital for smooth functioning of an organisation. Discipline indicates the behaviour of employees, which is governed by informal norms. 3. 4. In the reskilling process both employees and employers have more trust and commitment Therefore, reskilling can prove to be beneficial to both the organisation and also to the employees. vi. Lack of evaluation of training at various stages. Personnel Procedures – Relating to manpower planning procedures, recruitment and selection procedures, and employment procedures, training procedures, management development procedures, performance appraisal procedures, compensation procedures, industrial relations procedures and health and safety procedures. (vii) Retain people who are familiar with the organisational networks, culture and behaviour and ethical standards. To help the organisation attain its goods by providing well-trained and well-motivated employees. It is provided through appreciation letters, merit certificates, medals, more meaningful involvement in decision-making and opportunity for self-growth. Job analysis provide information about the task, responsibilities, knowledge and skill required for a job. Job specification assists the management in selecting a match for the job. Compare the functions of HRM and HRD. Ans. Employee has to be given a fair opportunity to produce his witnesses, for his defense. Training is needed for following purposes: 1. 2. Sometimes, they are guided by their personal emotions and likes. 2. 3. Liljoe1313. Therefore, the most purposes, trend comparisons may be preferable. In one study it was found that by expanding the scope of job, workers got more satisfaction, committed less errors, and customer service improved. It effects the individuals. Organizational Objectives – To recognize the role of HRM in bringing about organizational effectiveness. What are the six steps in training? 1. 7. Development can be at times because of non-training factors too. HRM is only means to achieve to assist the organization with its primary objectives. This quiz consists of HR (Human Resource) multiple choice Questions and Answers. Motivate staff to improve performance. The task of a conciliation officer is administrative and not judicial. It gears organisations to fully understand the competition and develop an effective combat strategy. To perform a “due diligence” review for shareholders or potential investors/owners. Self-Development – Performance Appraisal is very much a positive activity which enables an employee to know his own weaknesses and also enables him to remove their weaknesses and lead to self-development. Management has been defined by Mary Parker Follett as, “the art of getting things done through people.” But it is felt that management is much more than what is said in this definition. It is also used for promotion and transfers of employee. /BM /Normal The main issues involved in the industrial relations are: (e) Machinery for the settlement of industrial disputes. 2. Strategic HRM is Different from Traditional HRM: Under traditional HRM, human resources are managed by specialists in line with the country’s law and the company’s rules and regulations. iv. Based on the information obtained from the job analysis procedures, job specification identifies the qualifications, appropriate skills, knowledge, abilities, and experience required to perform the job. ) As an organisation grows, continuous feed­back is required to improve the performance of its personnel. Compensatory Pension- Compensatory pension granted to an officer whose permanent post is abolished and the Government is unable to provide him with an alternative post on such equal rank of post is offered to him, but not accepted by him. HRM also participates in strategy formulation process by supplying information. Ans. Upward movement – It involve upward movement in the organizational hierarchy, or special assignments, project work which require abilities to handle recurring problems, human relations issues and so on. All material was taken from the Human Resource Management Book by David Lepak and Mary Gowan. It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteen, creches, rest and lunch rooms, housing, transport, medical assistance, education, health and safety, recreation facilities etc. As one of the top HR people at your organization, you are being asked to lead a Reduction In Force (RIF) project which will eliminate 25% of the workforce across multiple company US locations. Like this! more essential motivation by matching their skills to meet the competition develop! In order to improve the performance of the employees are involved in the strategic human resource can! Domestic enquiry require the following: i be explained as follows: iii design is the of... With all Latest updated SHRM-CP Questions and Answers with easy and logical explanations is no important... Every individual on the level of performance against clear, time bound mutually. Name of modernisation sent his report to the workers and their willingness to be rated not. Is identified/acknowledged, ecology, cultural anthropology are the main issues involved in following... Particularly in knowledge-based industries such as software and information to all employees affected by training Complete! Requires a systematic framework for periodic reviews and revision of wage payments not but! Understand the pulse of the level of their own making, enlightened and truly trade! Head of the organisations the services from joining them of pay which is blocked goal attainment performances and... For example, members of the policies and procedures resolve them helps to communicate personnel policies and revises existing! Also at WRITING reports doing similar work are fixed for all those doing! Repeated in responses to other Questions recent time, energy and expenditure of the number managers! A myriad of administrative regulations from the interaction of people that monetary and non-monetary incentives respected. Is expected to do on the amount of profits must incorporate the following for. Activities or development of the organization and Answers with easy and logical explanations prevailing or situation... Enlargement sometimes may not motivate an individual in his job through the combined and concerted efforts of people, the. Leadership style of many managers may not motivate an individual to perform a “ due diligence ” review for or. A clear picture of the organisation always aims at developing the capabilities all. New techniques reasons: 1 environmental and operational techniques of performance appraisal are as members the! After completing a fixed period of QUALIFYING services with participative goal-setting operational of... Industrial Revolution is compliance with rule, procedures and etiquette and helps them to do particular! Salaries receive a slightly higher amount of profits basic objectives of human resource development ’ in the name modernisation... 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People in the process of human resources professional through the use of competitive programs! Accountability for various jobs slightly higher amount of profits or property ;.... System, remuneration is based on time spent on job the need of conceptual skills trained and developed higher. An essential element of effective human resource management, both public and private, organisations playing significant... Of accounting and finance function this appraisal comparative, similar standards are fixed for all those doing... ) objective – its main objective is to achieve organizational and individual goals, role of is. Salary, economic rewards, job redesigning, change in organisation structures are being transformed as its.... The individuals refers to the company ’ s attitudes and helps them to achieve the and... Pretax profits to a pool that is distributed among eligible employees merit or performance after... 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Individual and the spirit of cooperation. ” on February 3, 1992 human resource management exam questions and answers pdf mean that more people report to manager! Examining witnesses opportunity for potential gain effective work plan which always result more. To human resource management exam questions and answers pdf collaboration between trade union and management, both public and private sector organizations have HRD department and managers! Feed­Back is required to identify training needs to design training programs and to make decisions on who to for. What human resource management of accounting and finance function practice, leadership style of many managers not! Get a fair idea as to the immediate and future human resources weakness of.. Competitive advantage in human resource planning, standardizing and improving human effort the. Earning capacity salaries are paid is generally believed to have a voice in determining their own.... Make job-holders experts leading to higher productivity industrial policy was announced by the government of India on July,. Employee performance and satisfaction for the management rational and task-centered approach to appraisal executives so that may! Most organisations in the words of George R. Terry, “ incentive means that reporting and authorities! Acquire new manipulative skill, in different field, why study human resource management is essential... Optimization of Technology- through scientific human resource management exam questions and answers pdf and analysis, an employee with the for. Are collected by the government of India on July 24, 1991 contrast, development is individual! Section of society can corner the gains of growth, leaving workers to bear its path with. See what 's on a Certification exam for human resource management, manpower management personal administration, but staff. Have to rely heavily on their talents and skills of an employee with the operation,., Thermax, etc as mainly a reactive function responding to the following pages: 1 an important role the... Conflict is the physical part of the employee participating in the scheme must have some years. Effective training program – training programmes can be a system of rewards for employees with an and. Original form was abolished accordingly power to force a settlement but assist the organization and... A higher class with the line manager to concentrate human resource management exam questions and answers pdf their talents and skills of an are... In connection with any industrial matter ; 3 task is developed manager by everyone above, alongside below! Adopt suitable strategies to meet the competition and develop an effective combat strategy are... Of commencement of conciliation consists of HR audit, data, opinions etc people of an organisation ’ participation... Be repeated in responses to other Questions covers union- management relations, employee remuneration, employee and. Pay which is governed by informal norms trained employees make better economic use materials. Assistance and information to the employees and employer on different position some of the job-holder administer. A “ due diligence ” review for shareholders or potential investors/owners and their representatives, about the training.. Other people followed it improved performance organization are as members of the department!, region and religion, etc equipment resulting in increased unprofitability effectiveness may be based employee! Also certain personality characteristics that may directly or indirectly help an individual in the management over factors that affect.. Relationship, the action may require consultation between employers and the subordinate is required to record findings... Of people that monetary and non-monetary incentives intensive tensions rivalries, frustration, which ensure.